What Is End to End Testing? E2E Definition and Tools

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End to End testing

What is End to End testing?

End to End Testing Definition

End to end testing is a software development lifecycle (SDLC) approach for assessing an application’s functionality and efficiency. Under product-like scenarios and data to simulate real-world scenarios.

End to end testing ensures that the application flow operates as expected by testing the entire software product from start to finish. It specifies the product’s system dependencies and guarantees that all integrated components function correctly.

End-to-end (E2E) testing aims to test from the end user’s perspective by recreating an actual scenario. Moreover, it evaluates the test system’s integrity of data and integration elements.

Today’s software systems are complicated and linked with many subsystems. The entire software system could crash if one of the subsystem fails. This is a significant risk that can get mitigated by end-to-end testing.

End to End Test vs. Integration Test

Integration Tests:

Integration testing typically entails testing a specific piece of functionality (sometimes called a module) dependent on another part of the functionality.

Goals of Integration Testing:

Running integration tests has three key objectives:

  • Integration tests provide synchronization across modules when they collaborate to complete a task, especially when different developers or teams create the modules.
  • These tests also aid in the verification of the application’s interfaces. Make sure that data moving from one module to the next is appropriate.
  • They ensure that the interconnection between modules works as it should.

Integration Testing Methodologies:

The Bottom-Up Methodology:

The bottom-up strategy emphasizes testers integrating smaller modules. Typically produced initially into larger modules that you can build later. These tests necessitate the simulation of higher-level modules, referred to as drivers.

The Top-Down Method:

The top-down strategy is the exact opposite of the bottom-up technique. The larger, more complex modules take precedence here, while the lower-level modules get mimicked. The emulated modules get referred to as stubs in this scenario.

The Big Bang Technique:

This method allows all modules to get tested at the same time. This necessitates the completion of all modules. However, bear in mind that this method can be time-consuming.

End-to-End Testing:

E2E testing appears to be pretty similar to manual testing. When conducting E2E tests, you want to test the product the same way a genuine user would. (Learn all about product roadmap tool here.) You’ll want to double-check that everything functions as it should.

End-to-end testing goals:

The primary goals of E2E testing are as follows:

  • E2E tests imitate a user’s experience in detail.
  • They also enable you to test the application’s many subsystems and layers.

End-to-End Testing Methodologies:

Horizontal E2E:

Most individuals consider horizontal E2E testing when they think about E2E testing. Horizontal E2E tests often mimic typical application usage cases and run them through from beginning to end. The registration system for a new user is an excellent example.

Vertical E2E:

Vertical E2E testing is a more technical process incorporating the following data across the UI, API, and database layers to test system components. The checkout process on an e-commerce website is the best notable example here.

How to perform end to end testing?

To start and finish any E2E testing, follow the procedures below.

  • Examine the needs. Have a clear understanding of how the app is supposed to function.
  • Create a test environment that meets all of the requirements.
  • Examine the hardware and software requirements.
  • Make a list of how each system should react.
  • Make a list of the testing procedures you may use to evaluate these responses. Include precise details of the standards to follow in each test (language, tools, etc.).
  • Create test cases.
  • You should run the test, study the results, and save the results.

What are the best end to end testing tools?


Selenium is among the oldest tools in use, and it has remained popular over time. It is a collection of tools and packages most commonly associated with programming languages.

Selenium has packages for Java, Python, C#, Ruby, Javascript, and other programming languages. This benefits developers in general since it allows them to test their products in the language they are most acquainted with.


Another tool that has made the lives of testers easier is Cypress. It uses a different design than Selenium, which reduces the difficulties that come with it. 

Cypress focuses solely on end-to-end testing.

Cypress is adaptable and works well with apps created using a variety of frameworks, including React, Angular, and others.

It doesn’t use any drivers or remote code. Instead, the tests are executed in a web browser using Javascript. Developing and running tests and troubleshooting will be a breeze if you’re using Cypress.


Cucumber, unlike Cypress, emphasizes behavior-driven development (BDD). This lets you construct a product while considering the perspectives of many stakeholders such as developers, QAs, and customers. Cucumber’s popularity stems primarily from its simplicity.

Cucumber employs Gherkin, a remarkably similar syntax to English statement writing. Cucumber is the solution for folks who don’t like writing tests in complex code. 

Cucumber makes writing test scripts simple, even for non-technical people. This also aids non-technical persons unfamiliar with core programming in comprehending the tests.


Testim is among the most advanced yet user-friendly end-to-end testing frameworks available. It is suitable for all types of tests. Do you enjoy writing codes for your tests? This is something Testim allows you to do. 

Do you despise coding? You can continue testing without writing a single line of code, no issue.

Testim provides a fantastic record and playback testing function that employs complicated algorithms and artificial intelligence to execute tests on an application. 

It provides a straightforward user interface while maintaining high testing quality. Testim’s AI allows it to evaluate complicated dynamic applications where many other tools fall short.

What are the benefits of end to end testing?

Guarantees the application’s overall correctness and wellness:

During end to end testing, the software gets validated at all phases. This makes sure the application’s total correctness and health.

Boost the Applicant’s Self-Assuredness:

End to end testing also boosts trust in the application’s functionality and performance before releasing it because it gets thoroughly tested. Across various endpoints for multiple devices and platforms.

Lowers future risks:

The application gets carefully tested after each iteration and sprint in end-to-end testing. As a result, reducing the chances of failure and danger.

Reduces Repetitive Efforts:

There is no looking back now that the application has appropriately got tested. End to end testing reduces the possibility of frequent failures. As a result, the requirement for repetitive testing.

Saving money and time:

End to end testing using an automation testing tool lowers the recurrence of mistakes, which means the application doesn’t need to get tested again. This significantly decreases testing costs and time and assists in the improvement of productivity in other essential procedures.

What is the purpose of end to end testing?

Back-end testing:

It aids in the testing of the software’s back end. Because it is self-evident that the software’s back-end database is essential to its operation, as a result, testing this layer helps determine how well the software can fulfill its purpose.

Detects Errors in a Variety of Situations:

It assists in testing heterogeneous, distributed, cloud, and SOA-based settings. It also aids in error detection in different software components.

App Behavior gets Validated Across Multi-Tier Architectures and Systems:

E2E testing aids in the evaluation of multi-tier architectures and systems. It examines how well-connected systems work as a whole.

Ensures the best possible interaction and experience:

It ensures the program works correctly and provides a consistent experience across platforms and environments.

Performs Repeatable Tests at Various Points and Processes:

End-to-end testing allows you to run repeatable tests for various software operations at several stages during a transaction.

It also validates the entire flow of software and subsystems, increasing test coverage and performance confidence.


What is an end to end testing example?

Here is an example for end to end testing of a user experience: Using a website to pay for a product or service.

Why is E2E testing important?

To provide a positive user experience in a competitive industry where there is no scarcity of apps for an organization, it is vital to do E2E testing on applications.

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