What Is Marketing Mix & 7 P’s of Marketing? With Examples

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Marketing Mix

What Is Marketing Mix?

The Definition

“The marketing mix is “the set of marketing tools that a company utilizes to achieve its marketing goals in the target market environment.” According to marketers, it’s what makes your product unique and different from the competition.”

Marketing is about matching the right product with the right audience at the right price, place, and time. It may seem simple, but a lot goes into figuring out what customers desire, where they shop, how to price the product to match its value, and coordinating it all to meet the correct time frame. 

One misstep, such as promoting a fuel-efficient car in a country with cheap fuel, releasing a textbook post-school year, or pricing it incorrectly, can lead to unsuccessful marketing efforts. To avoid such mishaps, the marketing mix and its four key components, known as the 4Ps of marketing, come into play.

4Ps of marketing mix

This article delves into the marketing world by providing a comprehensive glossary of terms related to the marketing mix.

What Are the 7 Ps of the Marketing Mix?

The following involves the process of defining the marketing mix:


A company’s product is what it offers to the market, be it a tangible item such as a beverage or clothing or a digital offering like software. Services, such as consultancy, speaking engagements, or therapy sessions, are also considered products. 

Essentially, the product is anything made available for consumption by the end user. As part of the 4Ps strategy, it’s crucial to understand what sets your product apart from others and what appeals to customers. With a unique selling proposition, it can be easier to succeed in the market.

The company manufactures or designs the item or service to fulfill consumer needs

The product ought to be promising, productive, and effective. Customers will only buy an efficient product when you promote it heavily. 

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Your audience will acknowledge the marketing investments and strategies if the product has potential.

How do you make your product potential enough? With the help of effective product development, design, and branding

Bringing a product idea from conception to market includes product development. It entails performing market research and designing, testing, and producing products. An effective product development process yields a product that appeals to consumers and stands out in the marketplace. 

Companies that invest in product development can produce cutting-edge goods that satisfy the shifting consumer demand, boost sales, and help them keep a competitive advantage while expanding their businesses.

A significant marketing component is product design, which determines a product’s appearance, features, and functionality. It aids in separating items from rivals, establishing brand identity, appealing to clients and satisfying their demands, enhancing functionality, and boosting sales. Product success and overall customer happiness get influenced by good design.

The practice of giving a product a distinctive identity in consumers’ perceptions is called product branding. It entails creating a moniker, looks, and personality for the product that sets it apart from rivals.

By forging a strong emotional bond with customers, developing product identification, and setting it apart from rivals, product branding aids businesses in marketing. Product branding is an essential component of an effective marketing plan since it can raise the price of a product, foster client loyalty, and boost overall sales.

Example of Product

In the case of the iPhone, the product will include every feature and design.

The cellular structure, variety of colors, touchpad, and so on will fall under the “‘product mix” part.


Regarding marketing, the term “price” refers to the cost we incur to receive the goods and services a business offers. This aspect of the marketing mix is significant as it influences a company’s ability to thrive and profit.

Determining the right price for a product is crucial for a company’s success. You consider several elements when pricing a good or service, including the list price, competition’s prices, available discounts, and the terms of sale.

The consumer pays the value to access or receive the product. Most marketing promotions stress the cost-effective pricing of the product. 

Pricing depends on the various costs incurred during the development phase and the profit margins desired by the stakeholders

You also need to take care of pricing strategies to make the marketing more effective. We will glance through the most effective pricing strategies quickly. 

Regarding pricing strategies, there are a few options to choose from.

Competitor-based pricing, also known as competitive pricing, involves positioning your products compared to your competitors. It can mean pricing your products lower, similarly, or even higher than your competition.

On the other hand, value-based pricing considers a customer’s willingness to pay. 

This strategy requires constant communication with different customer profiles, as their willingness to pay can vary based on their persona, location, and even offers.

Cost plus pricing, also referred to as markup pricing, is a straightforward approach to pricing as it involves marking up the cost of production based on the desired profit margin.

Price skimming involves starting with a high initial price for a new, highly anticipated, and innovative product with no competition and gradually lowering it over time.

Penetration pricing, on the other hand, starts with a low initial price point to attract buyers away from competitors. 

The strategy is to gradually raise the price after the product has gained a following and established itself in the market. Introducing a large audience to the product or brand can be effective.

Now you might wonder, “But how do I set the price?” We have got you covered. Keep reading. 

For setting the price, you should consider a few factors: 

  • The worth of your product: From the user’s perspective, is it worth the money spent buying it? Is it equipped to serve most of the user’s needs? And is it better than the other brands?
  • Compare the market prices: If another brand’s product provides the same service as yours, it comes down to the price difference. The customer will buy the more cost-effective product, and marketing promotions attract the customer through price comparison. 
  • Over or underpricing: You should price the product based on its features, the number of needs it fulfills, and the prices offered by competitors. Also, sometimes, the brand image aids the pricing. 

Therefore, a product shouldn’t be so overpriced that the customer won’t buy it. It also should be too underpriced that you don’t meet the profit margins even if the sales are high.

Example of Price

Apple is a classic example of a premium pricing strategy

That means the product’s prices are marked high owing to its high quality and value.


Place refers to the areas of distribution.

The “place” component of the marketing mix refers to where a company sells its products and provides its services. You consider location a crucial aspect of a marketing strategy, as consumers often research nearby options before making a purchase.

Selling your products in a location that appeals to your target customers is essential. There’s no point in offering products to people who have no interest in them. That’s why it’s crucial for a business to position and distribute its products in a place that is easily accessible to potential buyers or customers.

It’s important to note that “place” doesn’t just mean a physical store location. It also refers to the placement of products within a store. In simpler terms, the store displays the products and their presentation.

Distribution is the heart and soul of “place.” 

Distributing a product means spreading it out in the market so that many people can access it and purchase it. Regarding the marketing mix, “place” or “distribution” refers to the method by which a company gets its products in front of potential customers and into their hands.

It’s all about ensuring that a product is available to as many people as possible in many locations. A company increases its chances of making sales and generating revenue by doing so. In short, “place” or “distribution” in the marketing mix is all about getting a product in front of customers and making it accessible to them.

We will take a closer look at a few aspects which are a crucial part of “Place.” 

Distribution channels are the roads that products travel from being made to finally ending up in the hands of consumers. The primary objective of these channels is to get goods to sales outlets and into customers’ hands as quickly as possible.

Sometimes companies need a little extra help getting their products out there, and that’s where intermediaries come in. Intermediaries, also known as marketing intermediaries, act as go-betweens between the different stages in the distribution process.

Think of them as intermediaries who help to make the process of getting products to customers smoother and more convenient. By acting as intermediaries, they bridge the gap between the company and the customer, making it easier for customers to get their hands on the products they want.

Supply chain management is about ensuring that products flow smoothly from the start of the production process to the customer’s hands. It covers every process step, from taking raw materials and transforming them into final products to getting them in front of customers.

Physical distribution and logistics are about getting products from one place to another. It’s the nuts and bolts of getting products from the manufacturer to the customer, ensuring they’re delivered on time and in good condition. 

It’s a critical part of supply chain management, as it helps ensure that products are available to customers when they want them. An excellent physical distribution and logistics plan can mean the difference between a successful business and one that struggles.

Example of Place

Apple invests a lot in advertising, marketing, and appealing promotional techniques.

As marketing has evolved, we have also seen new, more innovative, and creative ads for the iPhone. They are now also involved in social media marketing.


Promotion helps communicate with potential customers and promote product benefits to convince or attract them to buy.

It involves advertising, incentive, discounts, word of mouth, or anything that promotes a good image.

Promoting a product, activity, or brand among the target audience is what we call promotion in the marketing world. It’s about getting the word out there and making potential customers aware of what’s on offer. It’s about more than just increasing sales, though. 

Sometimes promotion focuses on building a company’s reputation and establishing positive relationships with the public.

Whether it’s to drive sales or improve reputation, promotion is a crucial part of marketing and must get noticed. Various tools get utilized for communicating and spreading awareness about a product or brand to reach customers.

Promotion mix is the combination of different elements that a company uses to promote its product or service to the target customers. The promotion mix has five essential components:

  1. Advertising: A paid form of non-personal communication through various media channels like TV, print, online, etc., to reach a large audience.
  2. Public Relations: Building and maintaining a positive image of a brand or company through media relations, events, and community outreach. It’s two-way communication between the company and the public.
  3. Personal Selling: One-to-one interaction between the salesperson and the customer to promote the product or service. It’s a more direct and personalized form of promotion.
  4. Sales Promotion: Short-term incentives like discounts, free trials, or contests to encourage customers to make a purchase.
  5. Direct Marketing: A form of promotion involves direct communication with customers through mail, email, or telemarketing to promote a product or service.

Example of Promotion

You can easily find iPhones on online and offline platforms.

They are always available on giant e-commerce stores like Amazon


Anyone who interacts with customers or delivers your offering falls into this critical category.

It includes your employees, suppliers, partners, and other associates who customers may encounter. These individuals are essentially representatives of your brand and business. The experience they provide reflects on your company and can influence perceptions of your product or service.

Ensuring all personnel properly get trained to understand your mission, values, and the type of customer experience you want to deliver is crucial. They should believe in your goals and feel empowered to help achieve them. When recruiting new team members, finding people with the right skills and personality fit for their roles is vital.

A significant 50% of consumers are inclined to switch to a competitor following a single negative experience, which rises to 80% after enduring multiple unfavorable encounters. In today’s customer-centric market, providing excellent customer service is imperative for any brand aiming to thrive and retain its customer base.

The people behind it ultimately define a business. Prioritizing staff development and creating a culture where all feel valued will translate to improved customer relations. With the right people strategies, your human resources can become a significant asset that differentiates your offering and builds loyal advocates for your business.

Example of People

Brands like Nike leverage influencers and athletes to connect with their audience, associating their products with renowned personalities.

Physical Evidence

Within any customer experience or transaction lies tangible reminders and proofs of the interaction. These physical artifacts that remain illustrate the product or service component of the marketing mix.

For a hair salon, it’s the new hairstyle customers leave with. For an online course creator, it’s the PDF certificate of completion or notes file downloaded. A retailer provides customers with bags, tags, or packaging bearing the company logo.

Consistency across these materials is essential to reinforce branding throughout the buyer journey. Transactional items such as receipts, emails, and thank you cards allow one to leave a final impression.

The goal is for these tangible reminders to complement the overall experience in a way that keeps the brand top of mind. Businesses should strive for cohesion and quality from the product to accompanying materials at each touchpoint. A unified physical presence reinforces the brand message and solidifies the customer relationship.

Example of Physical Evidence

When a luxury perfume brand presents its fragrance in an intricately designed bottle housed in sophisticated packaging, it is physical evidence. The packaging visually represents the brand’s quality and exclusivity.


Process is a key part of the marketing mix. It involves crafting steps that provide an optimal customer experience from initial contact through purchase and beyond. Carefully designed processes ensure consistency at each touchpoint.

Businesses should map out how prospects progress through each stage, starting with lead generation. Clear intake, demonstrations, proposals, contracts, and onboarding guidelines allow for seamless handoffs. Support after the sale is also crucial to provide ongoing value.

Customers appreciate processes tailored to their individual needs. Even amazing products can get undercut by friction at any stage. Tools like CRMs and analytics help streamline workflows while deepening understanding of what resonates. Process improvements may involve automation through AI assistants or personalized communications.

The goal is frictionless interactions from start to finish. Marketers should consider reaction times, scheduling efficiencies, payment processing, training, and more. Gathering positive reviews further strengthens the relationship.

Example of Process

McDonald’s exemplifies the “Process” element through its streamlined and efficient ordering system. Customers can order at the counter, drive-thru, or through mobile apps. The standardized order-taking, meal preparation, and delivery process ensures consistency and quick service.

What Are the 4 C’s of the Marketing Mix?

4 C’s of the Marketing Mix

As marketing has evolved, the focus has shifted from business to customer. Companies now resort to a more customer-centric approach

That is why the four Cs have taken over the four Ps since 1990, especially in digital marketing

The four C’s are Customer, Cost, Convenience, and Communication.

They are the essential tools for any successful marketing strategy.


The customer is the center of attention in any excellent marketing strategy.

Customer value is everything to an organization; satisfaction is its primary goal. Organizations should focus on solving customer problems, needs, and demands.


The cost of goods sold can refer to the total amount you’ve paid (including materials and labor) to manufacture, distribute, and market a product.

It may also include the expense of making trade-offs for consumers, such as delaying their next purchase or feeling guilty about not purchasing anything at all.


Convenience is also an essential requirement for making purchasing decisions.

Organizations must provide comfort to buyers by offering user-friendly policies regarding selection, price, delivery, and so on.

These primary factors influence convenience, customer acquisition cost, customer service, product features, and information availability.


Communication helps acquire customer feedback that may alter the business’s marketing strategy.

You can do this in marketing, advertising, emails, media appearances, and so on.

User survey space to craft new surveys and send them to your customers.
Polls and surveys will allow you to reach more people and collect more customer feedback.

Define communication with your customer using surveys with the top product management software. You can also tailor your audience to your needs.

These four c’s are the most important factors affecting customer value and satisfaction and establishing a market presence. Organizations can build long-term success if they apply these.

What Is the Process of Finding Your Optimal Marketing Mix?

Every business is unique, and even those within the same industry can have vastly different marketing approaches. 

Crafting an effective marketing strategy is a blend of both science and art. 

Businesses that see success with their marketing campaigns across multiple channels have mastered the art of combining tactics. That is with building a genuine customer base that eagerly anticipates their products or services.

However, the challenge lies in finding the right combination of tactics. With so many options available, it can take time to pinpoint the exact platform, strategy, or tactic that will lead to the coveted outcome of online success. Unfortunately, many businesses need help finding the winning formula.

In this article, we want to share the secrets of how businesses that excel at identifying the ideal marketing mix go about putting everything together. 

Step 1: Study Your Competitors

Before formulating your marketing strategy, it’s wise to look at your competitors. Analyze what they’re doing well and what they could be doing better. 

Take note of the things you like about their approach and identify areas you think you could do better. By doing this, you can avoid reinventing the wheel and save time, effort, and money as you create your marketing plan.

Step 2: Define Your Ideal Customer

Gone are the days when companies randomly target a group of people with their content marketing. Today, companies know exactly who they’re trying to reach and create personas to cater to their content.

To effectively market your business, you must identify who needs your product or service and what appeals to them. This way, you can create detailed personas that will help you understand your target audience.

Step 3: Set Specific Goals

Once you recognize your target audience, it’s time to set specific goals. These goals could be monetary, data-driven, or a combination of both. 

The key is to attract a specific type of customer and be able to measure the results. With measurement, you will know if your marketing efforts are having the desired impact.

Step 4: Optimize Your Acquisition Strategy

With specific goals and a clear understanding of your ideal customer, it’s time to optimize your acquisition strategy. 

For example, suppose your data shows that your target audience is female, 28-34, from the midwest, and married. In that case, you need to target platforms that reach this group. 

It could be Facebook’s customizable targeting options or an organic growth strategy on Pinterest. The goal is to reach your customer on the platforms they’re already using.

Step 5: Determine Budgetary Limits

With your marketing roadmap established, it’s time to determine each platform’s budget allocation. You can split your budget evenly among several platforms and adjust as needed or concentrate on the best-performing media. The key is to be flexible and adapt your strategy as you collect data.

Step 6: Test, Modify and Review the Results

Regardless of your initial testing results, it’s essential to be adaptive and willing to make changes. Over time, you’ll be able to paint a clear picture of what success looks like and adjust your marketing strategy accordingly. 

Feel free to cut non-performers and increase the budget for your best campaigns. The key to success is continuously testing and tweaking your approach, using different platforms, targeting options, and being open to making significant changes if necessary.

Marketing Mix vs. Product Mix


The marketing mix is a blanket term that covers all the actions implemented for sales enhancement and brand promotion. It is a ‘mix ‘of factors that affect product marketing

The product mix is a sales term that refers to a product line. A product line means a group of products in a category you market together to increase sales volume.

Ambit and Scope

The marketing mix is a broad term encompassing product, price, promotion, place, product development, and product life cycle

On the contrary, the product mix is a much narrower term defining individual product lines. The product mix is a subset of the marketing mix that contains a product line within the marketing department’s control.


The marketing mix can change over time. This concept evolves as per the changing circumstances, market, and customer needs

On the other hand, the product mix is static. The product mix is limited to the company’s product line. Therefore, the variability is much lower here.


The marketing mix has multiple constituents. Hence, it has a more strategic point of view.

The product mix has far less impact than the marketing mix regarding importance and exposure. This is due to its limited scope since it deals only with a single component.


What is the difference between marketing and promotion?

Marketing relates to all the activities involved in enhancing the product’s sales. Promotion is one aspect of marketing, which means spreading the word about the product and its benefits to potential customers.

How do companies use the marketing mix?

You can use the four Ps of marketing at any time in the business. At the beginning of your venture, you can use it to assess and evaluate planning and can even use it to optimize sales and track growth.

Why is product important in the marketing mix?

Product is the very first component of the marketing mix as it provides the functionality, which sets the basis for other Ps of the marketing mix. Product is the key to connecting with customers and further generating sales.

What does the marketing mix do in the marketing strategy?

The Marketing Mix helps businesses determine their marketing strategy, by guiding decisions on product, price, promotion, and place. It influences targeting, segmentation, and positioning, making it a crucial first step in creating a marketing plan. All mix elements interact and influence each other, impacting a business’s ability to sell its product or service at a profitable price.

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